Top ten biological discoveries
Biology is a fascinating and diverse subject area. If you’re thinking of studying biology, here are ten famous discoveries to inspire you.
Aristotle (384–322 BC): classification of living things
Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle isn't often considered when it comes to great biological discoveries, but his work on the classification of living things was revolutionary. Referred to as the 'Ladder of Life', Aristotle's classification system was used up until the 19th century. He was the first person to recognise the relationships between species, and organise accordingly.
Galen (129–161 AD): early medical experimentation
The work of Greek physician Galen revolutionised the way medical research is conducted. Galen had a major influence on the development of many fields of medicine including anatomy, pathology, physiology and neurology. Notable discoveries include the identification of the differences between veins and arteries, and recognising that the larynx generates voice. Much of his hypotheses had scientific errors but his work in pioneering the field of medical research is undeniable.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723): microbiology
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek is well known for his contributions to microscopy and how he applied this to the field of biology. He revolutionised a technique for creating powerful lenses, which some speculate were able to magnify up to 500 times. Leeuwenhoek used the microscopes to find out more about the living world – his discoveries include bacteria, the vacuole of the cell and the banded pattern of muscle fibres.
Carl Linnaeus (1707–1775): modern taxonomy
A botanist, physician and zoologist, Carl Linnaeus came up with the system of naming, ranking and classifying organisms we still use today. It was his vast collection of specimens of plants, animals and shells that led him to think up a way of grouping and naming species. He separated all living things into three kingdoms – animals, plants and minerals – subdivided them into classes, then into orders and finally into genera and species. Take 'homo sapiens' – 'homo' is the genus and 'sapiens' the species.
Charles Darwin (1809–1882): theory of evolution
Probably the most famous naturalist of all time, Charles Darwin's contribution to biology and society is immense. He established that all species of life descended over time from common ancestors, with species continuing to exist through the process of natural selection. His theory of evolution was published in On the Origin of Species in 1859 and it caused quite the stir – he was disputing the long-held belief that all species had been created by God at the beginning of the world. Evolution by natural selection combined with Mendelian genetics is now accepted as the modern evolutionary synthesis and forms the foundations of much biological scientific endeavour.
Gregor Mendel (1822–1884): modern genetics
Gregor Mendel's extraordinary contribution didn't get the recognition it deserved until long after the friar's death. He used peas to discover and demonstrate the laws of genetic inheritance, coining the terms ‘dominant’ and ‘recessive’ genes in the process. The laws were rediscovered at the turn of the 20th century and provided the mechanism for Darwin's theory of natural selection to occur. The two theories combine to form our current understanding of the evolutionary process.
Barbara McClintock (1902–1992): jumping genes
American geneticist Barbara McClintock spent her career analysing maize, where she developed a technique for identifying and examining chromosomes individually. Despite it not being immediately recognised, her work made it possible for us to map human genomes. She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983 for her discovery of transposition and how genes could turn their physical characteristics on and off.
Watson (1928–) and Crick (1916–2004): DNA structure
James Watson and Francis Crick shot to fame in 1962 for their discovery of the structure of DNA, winning the medical Nobel Prize in the process. Their model of DNA (double helix) explains how DNA replicates, and hereditary info is coded and passed on. The discovery of structure has led to a much more developed understanding of function – used in disease diagnosis and treatment, forensics and more.
Jane Goodall (1934–): understanding chimpanzees
Our knowledge of wildlife and conservation has been transformed by Jane Goodall, the UK ethologist. Best known for her career-long studies of chimpanzees, she discovered the animals are omnivores and tool users. She’s a global leader in animal rights and was awarded a PhD degree from the University of Cambridge without holding a bachelor’s degree.
Wilmut (1944–) and Campbell (1954–2012): cloning a mammal
In 1996 Ian Wilmut and Keith Campbell cloned a mammal, famously named Dolly the Sheep. The pair cloned Dolly using a single adult sheep cell and a process of nuclear transfer. Dolly died after six years but cloning continues, although still not perfected and certainly not ready for human application (yet).